Reproductive Cloning Medicine Essay Example
In 1970, the first product of cloning process was realized. It was a sheep known as Dolly. The sheep had all the morphological features as the donor sheep. The process was successful. There was a lot of excitement among the scientists. It is ascribed to the breakthrough which was touted as the most difficult to achieve. By consequent, curiosity accrued among scientists to make other discoveries. Thus, they ventured into cloning human beings. After series of attempts, they also managed to come up with a cloned human being. The latter intrigued most scientists. However, the excitement was fleeting since a debate regarding this reproductive process cropped up. While a huge segment of people advocated for human cloning, another portion of the society condemned this process. From the unfolding above, it is categorical that the discovery of cloning human beings opened the Pandora box. It is on this premise that this discourse is hinged. The discussion highlights the ethical aspects that may be negatively affected by the issue of human cloning. To bolster this stand there was a decision taken by the former president of the United States of America, Bill Clinton. He condemned this process of reproduction to the extent of establishing the Anti Cloning Act of 1997. In essence, human cloning remains a danger to the ethics of the society. It is uncalled for since it disdains the general humanity as well as the Mother Nature. Hence, it should be considered unethical and must be vehemently discouraged in the society.
There are various reasons as to why cloning is unethical. One of them is that cloning gives uncertain results. Numerous experiments were carried out during the process. Most of these experiments normally failed. It is a trial and error process and the chances of its success remain flimsy. It explains why, for instance, the Dolly sheep appeared after 277 tries were made. It means 276 fused eggs were subjected to this process without success (Capps & Alastair 36). So many deaths of embryos were caused while trying to come up with the Dolly sheep. In cases where embryos survived to maturity, the newborn products died upon delivery. It highlights the extent to which cloning can be uncertain. Hence, it can be an extremely wasteful process. Accordingly, the process of cloning would unquestionably be detrimental to human beings. Envisage a scenario where millions of embryos are subjected to death in the process of developing human beings through cloning. Alternatively, imagine a scenario where children are born through cloning, only to die after delivery. Such process brings the human life into disrepute. It is true that cloned humans lack the natural aspect in them. Therefore, even if they are successfully manufactured, their lifespan is likely to be shorter in comparison to human beings born through the natural process. Uncertainty is also exhibited in the manner in which the cloned products are vulnerable to diseases; among other biological shortcomings. It has been proven that cloned products have got no adequate resistance to ecological conditions. Thus, they are susceptible to diseases, genetic damage and abnormality. Another element of uncertainty involves late manifestation of recessive genes. Under such circumstances, a whole line of people may negatively be affected by such genes. With the above facts regarding uncertainty, cloning remains a process that should not be condoned.
The economical aspect of cloning is extremely wanting. It is a scientific process which involves numerous and complex procedures to succeed. It also requires expensive equipment and materials to make it successful. Engaging in large scale cloning, therefore, serves as a threat to the economy. A state which is engaged in human cloning is likely to expend too much in this complex scientific process. In addition to that, so many funds are likely to go to wastage since the percentage of success of this process is currently 1% (Smith 74). Moreover, risks that come with cloning are enormous. Cases of negligence may ensue if the process of reproduction is embraced by most states. Ultimately, it is the economy that will be impinged upon. The only viable solution is to avoid this mode and embrace the traditional way of reproduction. In any case, there is not much danger associated with natural reproduction.
Intensive cloning of human beings would lead to overpopulation. Natural means of reproduction have already caused overfilling of the world with human beings. The question that pegs is why should cloning be introduced yet the number of people on earth is already huge? In case cloning is embraced, therefore, there is a high risk of adding pressure on the natural resources. The cloned humans are almost similar to natural humans when it comes to requirement for resources. It means that if cloned people are added on the globe, they will also jostle for the few resources that are sustaining the current population. It is likely to alter the food cycles and many natural processes. It may result in chaos due to shortage of natural resources.
Genetic diversity is an important aspect of human beings. Unfortunately, the cloning process is likely to diminish this crucial facet. As it is known, cloning involves getting genes from a donor, which are used to create another human being. The result of this process is total similarity between the donor and the recipient. The recipient exhibits similar traits as the donor. The looks are also the same. Basically, there is no substantial discrepancy between the two beings. Considering this, it is obvious that the human beauty will be greatly affected. One of the attributes that makes life a joy to live is the diversity that characterizes humanity. Every person is born with exclusive features in all aspects. Unfortunately, cloning does not provide for these amazing features. Instead, it serves as a photocopying machine which produces the exact copy of the original product. It is a con which is unquestionably undesirable. One of the reasons why human beings can survive in most ecological conditions is their vast genetic makeup. It is a positive attribute that may be wiped out if cloning is embraced. Cloning creates a single species of people who have no ability to adapt in any manner. In addition, such species does not have the ability to evolve. It clearly represents that cloning could prejudice the entire natural trend which has enabled humanity to thrive in all facets. Genetic diversity is one of the cornerstones that have sustained humanity on earth. There are various potential diseases to humanity. However, these diseases have been barred from attacking human beings due to the discrepancies in genetic makeup. Such phenomenon is of a great significance as it serves as a natural shield of human beings. The worry is that cloning could create loopholes for such diseases to attack human beings. It is attributable to the ability of cloning to generate people with similar genes. It makes them susceptible to potential diseases.
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Religion is one of the greatest phenomena in the world. Through religion, the world has remained peaceful. In addition, religion serves as the major proponent of social norms and ethics of the society (Roetz 42). Unfortunately, cloning has posed a threat to religion. Since time immemorial, religious believes have attributed creation and destruction to God. According to the teachings of religion, no other person has the right to create apart from God. Religious societies have always taught their children that the sole creator is God. Unfortunately, the issue of human cloning is causing confusion among the religion faithful. It would be extremely difficult for the religious leaders to promulgate their messages that God is the only creator. It may occur due to the fact that cloning could exhibit that human beings can as well create other human beings. It serves a monumental threat to religion as it can make many people stop believing in religious teachings. Religious leaders are adamant that cloning should be abolished outright since it disdains humanity. It also disrepute the work of God as far as creation is concerned. Religion has sustained the world to this level. Thus, actions such as cloning should be abolished for the sake of promoting the role played by religion for the past ages.
Identity crisis is another problem that cloning may hatch in the society. When a person is cloned to produce a copy of another, there is likely to be chaos as far as identification is concerned. First, the donor may lose the value he or she had before being cloned. In any case, each person is unique in his own way. When cloning is carried out, the uniqueness diminishes since two people of similar looks and traits cannot be regarded as unique (Thompson 31). Confusion as to identity may also arise where the clone may do things in the name of the donor and no one may realize this. In case of a criminal act, one may be apprehended and charged for a crime that he did not commit. These are some of the challenges that the natural way of reproduction automatically prevents. The question as to the relationship between the donor and their clone pegs too. Will the donor call the cloned being as their daughter, son, brother or sister? Such question is likened to the Pandora box.
Social acceptance is a challenge that may be caused by cloning. The issue of social acceptance is twofold. Human beings are social in nature, and they would always want to be accepted wherever they are. Just like the natural beings, cloned beings would also want to be socially accepted. However, it may never come to pass. They would be regarded as people who just came into existence as organ carriers of the original people. More so, they would be regarded as secondary human beings whose existence is not through the act of God. Such perceptions could spark a row between cloned people and natural people. It is a huge threat that pro-cloning persons should consider in their quest to have cloning as a legitimate process of reproduction. On the other hand, cloning could also cause rejection of natural human beings who harbor some physical deformities. Envisage a scenario where a crippled person has a clone which is perfect with no deformity. Definitely, humanity will start despising the natural man at the expense of the clone. In any case, the clone will appear more perfect than the natural being. It is a critical scenario that could lead to rejection of normal or natural human beings with some physical challenges.
Apart from creating unbalance in the society, the social fabric is likely to be immensely affected. Parenting and family matters are likely to be distorted. Relationships also face a disruption with the introduction of cloning. The natural way of birth comes as a package of love, affection and attachment (Soraj 57). Unfortunately, cloning does not provide for these elements in a family. During cloning, fused eggs of a person are implanted in another person who has got no biological relationship with the fused egg. When they deliver, there is no single resemblance of the mother and the child. It makes the mother lack the emotional attachment to the baby. In future it weakens the family ties. Furthermore, chaos is likely to ensue in families. The natural process of reproduction enabled people to appreciate the uniqueness of each person. Whether or not the child had deformities, parents allowed them to exist. The worrying trend is likely to be ushered in cloning process. There will be various choices to be made. Parents, for instance, will use all means possible to get babies with utmost intelligence and extraordinary abilities. It is a huge threat to diversity since children with shortcomings will end up being disdained in the society. At the end, the equilibrium that was established by natural phenomena will be distorted. It is when humanity will start realizing problems which were not unknown before.
Cloning as a reproduction process may just usher in all sorts of illegal actions. People may use this process to come up with various clones to be used in instigating illegal activities (Juviler, George & Arat 108). For instance, unscrupulous people and institutions may come up with various clones to help them carry out criminal activities without being noticed. When a person, for instance, has his own clones, he may use it to commit crimes without being identified. Alternatively, black markets may be established whereby people generate and sell clones for various purposes. It can cause a huge blow to humanity since people will be perceived as property which can be manipulated in any manner as desired by the orchestrators. So many entities, nations or criminal gangs desire to have huge armies and weapons to execute their desired tasks. Cloning may be the only way to create huge armies or criminal groups. Such move is likely to add more problems to present ones, as far as security is concerned. Insurgents and extremists are likely to use clones to execute their heinous activities since they do not consider them as complete human beings. Extremely wealthy people involved in crime are likely to come up with their own clones for tricking law enforcers. The infamous Osama bin Laden, for instance, was believed to have clones. It gave the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the Central Intelgence Agency (CIA) hard time to track and apprehend Osama bin Laden. However, whether the claims that Osama had own clones are true or not, it is a subject to confirmation.
Nature is a complex process that no one has the ability to comprehend. Through natural acts, various activities on the globe flow in a smooth manner. Nonetheless, cloning is attempting to usurp the power of nature. Cloning processes do not involve natural means of reproduction. For a reproduction to occur a series of processes take place. Even though these processes are long, they have their roles in cementing the unity and cohesion of the society (Cole-Turner & Brent 27). The process of reproduction is usually initiated by love. Human beings of opposite sex get in touch and are brought together through love. Love is an element that God put in humanity to facilitate procreation. Once the two people accept each other, they engage in mating. It is a sexual intercourse which leads to conception. Once conceived, it takes nine months for a child to be born. Nature causes unconditional love between the mother, the father and the child. From the sequence highlighted, one notes the value which nature brings in the natural reproduction process. More so, the natural mode of reproduction strengthens social aspect of the society. With cloning, nature is distorted since people can get children in any manner. Gays, for instance, may decide to have children through cloning, which is against the natural provisions.
In conclusion, cloning is a scientific process that is slowly establishing its roots in the contemporary society. However, those propagating for it have failed to foresee the repercussions of this process. It is a process which would see people losing their identity. Also, it will lead to excessive criminal activities due to similarity of people. When allowed, cloning will cause unprecedented transgressions from the natural practices. It would lead to chaos and confusions in the society at large. Cloning has got the effect of destroying family ties; a cardinal link that holds the world together. Religion is an important element on this globe. Through the teachings of religion people are accorded a chance to leave in harmony. Nonetheless, cloning is likely to water down the religious believes that have been in existent for the past centuries. Science and technology are very important to the world. They have generated comfort in various ways such as transportation, communication, governance and socialization. It is a positive trend. However, these developments have also caused unprecedented problems to the world. For instance, pollution of the environment has been occasioned. Global warming is now a huge threat to humanity. These are some of the major problems that human beings have caused through their scientific errands. Just like the above scientific processes, cloning is not an exception. Inasmuch as one would think it is a positive invention, the consequences of this process are likely to cause much trouble to the current and future generations. It calls for sobriety in policy making regarding cloning.