The Contested West

The Contested West, 1865-1900

1. Manifest Destiny. The reservations for Indians were created; the Indian lands were controlled and governed by the Euro-Americans.

2. Eastern demand for buffalo hide has grown, transcontinental railroad was built, hunters, who were mostly Anglos, were systematically killing the animals.

3. Ghost Dance is the religious movement of Indians, who believed that apocalypse would restore old native traditions and the way of living; it was widely spread through the US after 1889 and contributed much to massacre in Wounded Knee.

4. To encourage Native Americans to adopt the culture of “the white”.

5. The Irish immigrants.

6. The Washoe miners.

7.  The reason is that the distance, local hostility and funding did not let the federal government prosecute cases.

8. Benign neglect.

9. It was stimulated by the farmers’ woes, cyclical droughts; Oklahoma Land Run in 1889 brought 10,000 settlers in one day.

10. Any individual, who lived on the land for 5 years, got 160 acres free, homesteaders still needed 1,000 $ for a house, a well, a fencing, a team of farm animals.

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11. The representatives of Chinese race were not allowed to immigrate due to high numbers.

12. Very hard and filled with backbreaking labor.

13. Chips made of buffalo poop and dried cattle.

14. The Afro-American Cowboys were mostly the wage labors. As a reaction on the new realities of the ranching west they organized labor unions, mounted strikes.

15. It revolutionized the cattle business of small ranchers

16. The population of the California in 1860-1880 reduced by 60 %.

17. Large scale farming and land monopoly contribute to migratory labor and tenancy.

18. The stereotypes of “white” cowboys, who are the victimizers of the Indians became the central theme in western literature, movies, theatrical spectacles.

Business and Politics in the Gilded Age, 1865-1900

1. It is the period after the Civil War, which is characterized by enormous industrial growth of the US economy. The new technologies have improved the level of middle-class life, but the middle class stayed in unprofitable position, which caused numerous strikes, new forms of business were created, the cities were growing.

2. Andrew Carnegie – steel industry; John Rockefeller – founder of the oil company; J. P. Morgan – banker, financier; Alexander G. Bell – inventor of the first telephone.

3. Trust is the new form of corporate structure offered by Rockefeller; holding company is a parent company that holds the stock of another company and can control it; monopoly is a situation when one company owns the market of a product or service; vertical integration is merging two businesses together, though they produce different services or products; interlocking directorship is cross-memberships of directors of different companies.

4. They treated the workers good and fair, paid high wages and bonuses.

5. It is inexpensive, but can be used for mass-production.

6. It promotes that the individual in the society has to struggle for survival the same as animals do.

7. It did not interfere in the economy, only maintained laws and orders.

8. New methods and techniques of conducting the elections were used.

9. Dorothea Dix’s work aimed at the creation of public mental-health institutions for the insane, the exclusion of American women’s group from the 1840 World Anti-Slavery Convention in London, abolitionist activist movement led by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1848.

10. She was an Afro-American newspaper editor and journalist, who in the end of the 19th century became a leader of civil rights movement against women’s sufferings.

11. To provide the government employment with merit in order to let the applicants earn the position and not just be appointed.

12. As President Garfield supported the civil service reform, it has become as a memorial to him.

13.  The Democrats supported the low tariffs, free-market policy, and laissez-faire government while the Republicans insisted on raising the tariffs.

14. The tariffs created a surplus that was not used to produce any goods or services.

15. The Interstate Commerce Commission was the federal agency aimed to regulate railroads

16. Bimetallism is a system according to which gold and silver are equal. It makes the monetary reserves of the country bigger; the price becomes more stable; the exchange rates between the countries are determined more easily. Nevertheless, there are the following negative aspects of it: it should be used internationally, coinage of two metals is more costly, and moreover, the ratio of the metals’ prices is frozen regardless the demand and supply conditions; therefore, in 1873 the demonetization of silver confirmed by the Coinage Act

17. The administration tried to increase the gold reserves of the nation and made a deal with bankers to purchase gold abroad.

The City and Its Workers, 1870-1900

1. Symbolic importance of the Brooklyn Bridge was the cheap steel.

2. Railroad expansion, farmers lost jobs, technical innovations, and more opportunities in the cities.

3. Economic depression in southern Italy, railroad and steamship expansion, persecution of Jews in eastern Europe, cheap labor.

4. Before 1880 from western and northern Europe; after 1880 from eastern and southern Europe.

5. They hired the immigrants, whose workforce was very cheap.

6. African Americans.

7. Different races were regarded as different sub-species or even different species.

8. Immigrants.

9. Changes in the economy, racial and gender discrimination, suburban sprawl.

10. Dirt, poverty, crowding, and disease.

11. White women, who were office workers, sales workers.

12. Workers’ democracy, income tax, abolition of child labor, public ownership of railroads, equal pays for women workers.

13. Radicals organized Haymarket affair as a labor strike to protest the police action,

14. Young people could meet one another; young women needed to learn to distinguish between promiscuity and respectability; some reformers feared that dance halls would lure girls into prostitution.

15. Coney Island symbolized the rise of entertaining and amusement business.

16. City boss provided social services to new residents and oversaw the buildings.

17. Comprehensive free public school systems and public libraries

18. A great fair celebrating harmony, pristine beauty and uniformity took place in 1893.