The paper looks at the Bermuda triangle and the mystery of the lost ships and planes focusing on the opinions of different people concerning the disappeared. It also analyzes the explanation of different writers regarding the mystery behind the disappearances, with most of them interpreting it in scientific terms. Then, the paper elucidates common myths associated with the disasters and vanishing. In addition, it emphasizes the role of natural factors such as weather, the methane theory, the Gulf Stream, and the effect of the magnetic field in altering the compass, which might have caused the accidents. Furthermore, it expands on the human factors, such as human errors, pirates, and governments’ experiments, that have possibly contributed to the accidents. Finally, the paper provides an overview of the Dragon triangle, as the object for further research.

Overview of the Dragon Triangle


The Bermuda Triangle is an area in the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean. There has been much speculation, guesswork, research, and myths about the disappearance of the ships and aircraft as well as the mysterious deaths with no traces of the remains. At present, there is no geographical map of this area as the United States geographic board has not identified the Bermuda triangle with this name, nor is there an official map of the area with an established boundary. For this reason, the size of the triangle is not clear although there are estimates that it is between five hundred thousand to a million square miles. Currently, the disappearance record fixes more than fifty lost ships and twenty aircraft with no traces of their remains. All of the above facts have led to the area attaining the name of ‘the devil triangle.’ Some people believe that there some demonic or spiritual powers that drag the planes and ships to the bottom of the sea. However, none of the planes has disappeared without an explanation of either a human error or a natural phenomenon such as the weather. This research paper supports the role of human errors and natural phenomena in causing the accidents.

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Literature Review

The disappearance of ships and crafts in this region had remained a mystery until the Sciences came up with different theories explaining what might have happened. However, the fact is no one survived in all these accidents to explain to others what had happened exactly. The scientists can, therefore, only make guesses and connect them to their theories. The first noticeable case was the disappearance of flight 19 whose pilot was well-trained and had enough experience (Dorr, 2002). More mystery appeared when one of the rescue planes did not return under unexplainable circumstances. In 1918, there was also the disappearance of USS Cyclops, which transported coal and manganese (Dorr, 2002). In 1919, a ghost ship without any person or body was found in the Triangle (Dorr, 2002). In addition, Star Tiger and Star Ariel disappeared in 1948 and 1949 respectively while flying over the Bermuda (Frazier, 2015). There was also a Douglas airplane disappearance in 1949 (Frazier, 2015).

In the article ‘No mystery, the only science behind Bermuda triangle formation’, Reddy (2014) explains that the mistakes made by the pilots caused most of these accidents. Furthermore, the area statistics of the disappeared planes and ships is not remarkably higher than in other sea parts. The article also explains the role of technology, which was not well advanced. Captains and pilots relied on the compass only, which regularly changes due to the magnetic field making them travel in the wrong direction.

Kuschie (2015) claims that there is a different scientific explanation of plane crashes over the region connected with the location. There have been unexpected waves with the height of over 85 feet. It is very hard for a ship to survive such a high and vigorous wave. Furthermore, there is also a possibility of the ships sinking due to hurricanes, which are very common in the Bermuda triangle.

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Myths about the Accidents: Aliens and Bermuda Triangle Monster

When people cannot explain the occurrence of a situation, they usually turn to religious and weird explanations. For example, some believe that the Bermuda region is populated by aliens. This theory, known as the science fiction theory, argues that aliens are curious about human beings and pull some of them for unexplainable reasons (Cutler, 2013). There is also the theory of the submerged city of Atlanta. The proof of its existence is the presence of human-made features in the north of the Biminis Island, which is only fifty miles towards the east of Miami. In this region, there are rocks made of limestone that are almost rectangular and joined to make something resembling a pavement of about half a mile. They have the name of Biminis road, as there is a belief that they were used that way. There are also other smaller blocks making a path of about 170 feet long (Allison, 1984). Their arrangement and shape are the evidence that humans cut them from limestone. The city might have sunk due to the volcanic eruption though there is no scientific proof of this claim. Another theory suggests that the technology lying at the bottom of the sea might be the reason behind the disruption of the magnetic field as it was far more advanced than today’s technology. There is also a belief that the ghosts of the people that are underground sinks the planes and ships to destroy humanity.

Natural Factors that Could Have Caused the Accidents

Hurricanes, Waves, and Weather Changes

Weather changes: Cloudy weather is not good for flying. There are rapid changes of weather, especially in the sea area. When there are thick clouds, a pilot can only fly low which is not safe above the sea. It gets even worse if it rains as there will be a reduction of visibility, and the pilots may be unable to see where they are heading to, especially if they are not familiar with the area (Reddy, 2014). The wind also affects the flight due to the movement of the air above the wings. The change in either wind speed or the air pressure of the wind direction can make an aircraft rise to a greater height or fall suddenly. There were reports of severe weather during the disappearance of flight 19(Reddy, 2014). The situation can be made worse by the fact that it is getting dark. A combination of inclement weather, darkness, and the issue of being lost will create panic in a pilot; consequently, he or she has high chances of making other mistakes.

Hurricanes: Hurricanes are very common in the Bermuda Triangle. Nowadays, a sailor can avoid them with the help of the current technology. There are weather predictions and reports that will warn captains of a possible hurricane(Kourafalou, et al., 2016). Hence, they can have some weeks of waiting until it passes. This was not the case in the old times when ships’ travels would only depend on the seasons and the belief that hurricanes would not occur.

Rogue waves: Initially, there was a belief that the highest wave was 35 feet high. A big ship could have withstood such a wave. There was no evidence of rogue waves until 1995 when there was a radar record of the eighty-five feet rogue wave causing insignificant damage to the ship named ‘Draupner oil rig’. There have also been reports of the waves as high as 157 feet high (‘Renewable Energy’, 1995). The waves can be terrifying, as they do not have any warning of occurring, giving a captain no time to prepare by adjusting the speed and do something that can save the ship. There is also no prediction of the location where such a wave can occur. It occurs only once in every 200000 waves (Xu, et al., 2007).

They are usually caused by a high currency and high wind velocity that makes the waves come together. The Triangle has a greater possibility of experiencing high waves than a calm area in the ocean because of the Gulf Stream. A wave of around 157 feet can quickly submerge a plane or helicopter that is flying at a low height (Xu, et al., 2007). The low-flying habit is mostly familiar to rescue and coast guard that try to search for lost ships and any survivors. These can be the reason what might have happened to one of the rescue planes of flight 19 that disappeared on a rescue mission and some others.

Methane Theory

The scientists have tried to explain the possibility of the effect of methane hydrate. This gas is ensnared in an ordinary network of crystallized water. There are deposits that lie under the bottom of the sea, which can be at any height. The large ones possibly have massive energy, which can cause the submergence of anything above it when released at once. The water density in the area reduces significantly. The methane hydrate was also the cause of the destruction and sinking of oil drills. The explanation behind the total disappearance of wreck ships can be that there is no ship that can survive such an eruption sinking within ten seconds and driven to the bottom of the sea being pushed into the interior (Ma, 2015). A plane flying over the area will also crash and catch fire getting a pull towards the water at high speed. The eruption explains the mystery of some sailors’ reporting to have seen flames of fire while sailing along the Triangle when they were kilometers away. Some of them could only think of ghost lights.

Another methane theory deals with the gas bubbles’ creation at the bottom of the ocean as a result of the dying organisms in the sea and their decomposition. They may bubble later on causing a rise within the water. It starts with a small bubble that increases in size as the more organisms die and decompose. The gas bubbles may even become gigantic. They can be as large as the scale of the ship or greater than it. The air will burst if any heavy weight compresses it. When a ship tries to travel over the bubble, it also bursts. The space created by the bubble’s burst will fully engulf the traveling ship and pull it to the bottom of the sea (Schiermeier,2008). However, this theory is only applicable to a calm sea while the Bermuda has many waves. It can also occur when methane is produced at a high rate so that the current and the waves may not break the bubble.

The Gulf Stream

The Gulf Stream bears the blame for the complete disappearance of any wrecked ship or plane. The stream is a salty water river that is on the surface of the ocean. It has a warmer temperature than the surrounding ocean water. The salinity and temperature make it run along the coastline of the U.S on the east. The stream current has a width of sixty miles and a depth of around 2500 to 4000 feet (Kusche, 2015). The flow is the strongest and the fastest in the Bermuda Triangle than anywhere else. The ship or plane can float for a moment when it crashes into the water. The floating can take several hours depending on the extent of the damage. The stream drives the destroyed remaining parts towards the north and then sinks them below the creek and to the bottom. The sinking will happen before the rescue team can arrive. Their search over a radius of miles will be futile. The theory explains why there is no trace of ships even though it does not elucidate the fall and crush of ships and planes in the region.

Compass Reading Due to Magnetic Field

The Bermuda Triangle is one of the places in the world where the magnet does not point north. The compass behaves strangely in some areas. For example, the needle spins at the magnetic pole. The needle points to the magnetic north when it is at the actual North Pole or the South Pole (Nguyen, Ehrenfreund, & Vardeny, 2013). Most sailors and pilots have reported compass changes while traveling along the Triangle. Flight 19’s Captain had already complained that the compass was misleading them even though they maintained a planned speed and direction (Nguyen, Ehrenfreund, &Vardeny, 2013). They got lost more as they had to make guesses of the course to follow.
Human Factors Contributing to the Disappearances


Some of the disappearances might have been the attacks or thefts committed by pirates. For example, in the case of USS Cyclops, it is said that the captain by the name Worley had many enemies within the staffs and the officers (Dorr, 2002). There was an accusation of him being pro-German, as he was born in Germany but later changed his name. There was the loading of more coal and fuel, which was not the management plan. Inboard was also the general of Rio by the name Gottschalk who had close ties with Germany. The loading could have happened due to a person who had a plan of sailing the ship further where no one knew. There is an explanation that the two might have sunk the ship willingly or they may have sailed it to Germany (Rice, 2012). It could have been a theft issue, with the captain sailing towards Barbados in West Indies instead of Baltimore from Bahia. It also explains why he never made any call, which could have been the case if they had been in danger.

Human Error Factors

Human errors have caused most of the accidents and disasters. All the disappearance cases usually take place due to mistakes. Looking at the event of flight 19, Taylor had already reported that the compass was misleading them (Frazier, 2015). He thought they had traveled south instead of east as per the requirement. He was advised to turn north if he was very sure he was around the Florida Keys. Inboard, there were trainers who followed the commander’s instructions to maintain the Navy discipline. Taylor was the only experienced pilot. At some point, the basement concluded the off tracking of Taylor (Frazier, 2015). He already had a prior history of getting lost; hence, he was asked to hand the communication over to one of the trainees, which he did not. They continued to follow the wrong direction, it was getting dark, the weather was changing, and there was a stiff breeze. The trainees were right that they could have reached home by following the West direction, but they did not do so to maintain discipline. They must have run out of fuel while still looking for the right track to follow. The accidents can be blamed on the commander’s ego as he did not want to tarnish his name and experience by letting a trainee take over the communication and lead them to safety.

In the disappearance of USS Cyclops, the final reports show that there was the overloading with manganese and coal. There were also reports that the ship had already started showing signs of being weak, and this could have contributed to its sinking and inability to withstand the waves (Dorr, 2002). In the case of the Ghost ship, there was an exchange of the captain to a retired one who complained to one of the friends that he did not like one of the crew members who looked like he was a trouble maker. There were also threats by the first mate McClellan wanting to kill the captain. After finding the ship, the lifeboats were missing, and the hanging ropes were indicating the use of boats. The records of the ship’s movements had been made by a different person for the last days as various handwritings showed. It could have been a kidnapping case whereby the Captain was killed while the others sailed away in safe boats to avoid trials, or it could have been weather that made the people leave in a hurry with live ships.

Other human errors that might have occurred either with the ships or the planes include the inability to follow compass direction leading to following the wrong direction, with one realizing too late there was not enough fuel. There might have been some cases of poor weather prediction that assured the pilots and captains of the calm sea and low wind speed, only to turn out differently causing a disaster. There is also an error of communication breakdown, with the travelers being unable to receive proper instructions. There is also a case of new pilots training and going deeper into the sea only to get lost and too worried to ask for help. In the case of the Douglas airline, there were already reports of the technical malfunction and communication problem (Ward, & Filemyr, 2016). It is possible that the pilot did not receive the message indicating the change of the wind direction; hence, the wind might have pushed the plane towards the south.

Government Experiments

Another human interference that might be causing the disappearance of the planes is government tests, for example, the Philadelphia experiment by the American government with the aim of rendering a ship invisible to the enemy by radar. There were some unexpected happenings during the experiment. The strength of the magnetic field increased more than expected. The force led to the formation of a sphere and the subsequent creation of a greenish gaze around the ship that made it first invisible and then caused it to vanish completely. The ship had been transported to Norfolk instantly (Otter, 2004). However, the government denies ever caring out such an experiment. We cannot rely on the denial, as most governments do not expose their operations, especially if they touch on security issues.

Future Research

The future research should focus on the incidents occurring in the Dragon Triangle, which also have mystery points similar to the Bermuda triangle. There has also been the disappearance of several ships and planes under mysterious circumstances and due to the malfunctioning of electronic equipment. The Japanese government have deployed a hundred scientists to study the area but abandoned the study after the disappearance of their vessel. Among the versions explaining the disappearance there are myths of a dragon that lived at the coast of Japan. There is also the story of a fire-breathing monster, which might have been a case of a volcanic eruption in the sea.


There has been a misconception about the disappearance of the ships and planes in the Bermuda Triangle. The mystery concerns the absence of the traces of broken bodies rather than the way of their sinking. The best way to resolve it is to study one case after the other. The research revealed that each of the analyzed cases had a connection with either inclement weather or human error. Others happened due to the natural phenomena that are not prone to change. It will be easier to prevent future accidents once people accept that the disappearances were normal, not a mystery. Furthermore, there are other planes’ disappearances such as the Malaysian airplane, which did not occur in the Triangle. There are also numerous planes and ships that do not disappear; yet, they travel along the Triangle. After looking deeply into the cases, it is my belief that there is no mystery about the disappearance of the planes. All the cases have a connection to a natural feature of the area, inclement weather, or human error.

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